How Exosomes are Redefining Ageing

How Exosomes are Redefining Ageing: A Glimpse into the Fountain of Youth?

Skin and Hair RejuvenationOur bodies are truly amazing machines. They constantly work to repair and renew themselves, keeping us going strong. But as we age, this remarkable ability weakens. Imagine tiny repair crews within your cells, patching things up after daily wear and tear. Unfortunately, these crews get less efficient over time, leading to wrinkles, decreased mobility, and a higher risk of chronic diseases.

Here’s where science is making exciting breakthroughs! One key factor in aging is the shortening of telomeres. Think of telomeres as the plastic tips on shoelaces that prevent fraying. Every time our cells divide to replace damaged tissue, these telomeres get a little shorter. Once they become too short, the cells can’t divide anymore and eventually die.

But there’s hope! Scientists are exploring the potential of exosomes, microscopic messengers that play a vital role in cell communication. Imagine these exosomes as tiny packages carrying instructions. In this case, they carry the blueprint for an enzyme called telomerase, which can help protect those crucial telomeres.

Stem cell-derived exosomes are particularly promising. They deliver these instructions to our cells, potentially helping to slow down telomere shortening and promote cellular rejuvenation. This isn’t just about a simple repair. It’s a whole new approach to keeping our bodies youthful and healthy. These microscopic messengers are emerging as a revolutionary tool in the fight against aging, offering a novel approach to cellular rejuvenation. Well, it would be correct to say that it is going beyond cellular regeneration.

In this blog post, we will look into how exosomes are modulating the body’s natural healing process to help fight aging symptoms.

Exosomes: Nature’s Nanomessengers

Exosomes were discovered in 1983 as a form of extracellular vesicles. Since their discovery, they have been found to play a crucial role in various physiological aspects, including intercellular communication. These are nano-sized vesicles, ranging from 30-150 nanometers in diameter. For contrast, human hair is roughly 80,000 nanometers wide! These nanomessengers are secreted from the source and are brimming with several communication signals mirroring the contents of their parent cell. Exosome’s cargo is filled with diverse molecules, including:

  • Lipids: When an exosome is excreted from a parent cell, it takes a small part of its membrane; hence, the contents carry a general make-up of the parent cell. When the exosome is released, it also picks up individual lipids that correspond to the lipid profile inside the parent cells.
  • Proteins: As the cells have numerous proteins in their cytoplasm, as the exosomes are formed, they encapsulate a large number of proteins that are representations of the parent cell’s cytoplasmic profile.
  • Messenger RNA: Similar to proteins, exosomes also encapsulate messenger RNA that acts as the blueprint for the synthesis of proteins in the receiving cells. It helps boost the cells performance and rejuvenate them.
  • MicroRNA: These are small RNA molecules that do not act as blueprints but rather are involved in regulating the translation of specific genes in the receiving cells. By regulating translation, they regulate the number of protein molecules synthesized in the receiving cells. Human microRNAs are known to target multiple protein-coding genes that are involved in several biological processes and diseases.
  • Signaling Molecules: While they are not active themselves, exosomes contain proteins that can activate signaling pathways in recipient cells. They carry signaling molecules that modulate inflammatory signaling, apoptotic signaling, and much more. All these molecules contribute to the rejuvenation of the receiving cells and effectively communicate between the cells.

Exosomes carry these molecules from the parent cells, but what is the effect they bring about in the receiving cells? They can:

  • Promote cell growth and repair by bringing growth factors and anti-apoptotic molecules to the receiving cells. It leads to cellular rejuvenation of the target cells. The number of growth factors and anti-apoptotic molecules is relatively high in the parent cells that are isolated from younger cells, like the umbilical cord. Hence, when we use these cells to extract exosomes from them, we get supercharged exosomes that can deliver tons of benefits to aging cells.
  • As mentioned earlier, exosomes carry several signaling molecules that modulate immune responses as well. As they promote cell growth and repair, they also reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in the cells, which play a significant role in aging.
  • Exosomes also carry proteins, or their blueprints, that are responsible for repairing or bypassing aging signals.

 

Exosomes and Telomeres: A Potential Anti-Ageing Connection

Exosomes have the power to influence cellular functions, which in turn affect the aging process. One exciting area of research shows that exosomes have the ability to regulate telomere shortening. Let’s briefly discuss why telomeres are important and how they relate to the aging process.

Telomeres

Telomeres, as we mentioned in the introduction, are like caps at the ends of the chromosomes. They are essential for maintaining the stability of our DNA and play a crucial role in determining cell lifespan. They protect the integrity of our genetic information by shielding the coding DNA sequence from damage during cell division.

Telomeres consist of repetitive, non-coding DNA sequences. The repeated sequence acts as a buffer zone during the cell division process. During cell division, our DNA is copied and replicated, but during this process, a small length of telomeres cannot be fully copied. As the cell keeps on dividing, the telomere lengths keep on reducing, which eventually leads to their gradual shortening. The process is also called telomere shortening, which eventually leads to cellular aging and death.

Telomere shortening is a hallmark sign of cellular aging.

Restoring Telomere Shortening

An enzyme called telomerase can rebuild telomeres and help counteract their shortening. As the cells differentiate, they tend to lose their activity for telomere shortening. Interestingly, stem cells in the body retain high telomerase activity, which allows them to divide numerous times without reaching critical telomere shortening. This ability is what allows stem cells to continuously replenish tissues in the body throughout an individual’s lifetime.

Even though they have high telomerase activity, there is still an eventual telomere shortening while maintaining the ability to divide and differentiate. In other words, stem cells have an extended Hayflick limit, allowing them to continue replicating beyond the typical limit of somatic cells.

Exosomes Reduce Telomere Shortening

Exosomes, when extracted from the stem cells, encapsulate several proteins, including telomerase. As these exosomes move from their parent cell to the recipient cell, they can revitalize the telomerase activity in the recipient cells. Other than increasing telomerase activity, exosomes also bring in molecules that reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, both of which contribute to telomere shortening.

We still do not know the exact mechanism, but the results are clear: exosomes can help elevate telomerase activity in the recipient cells. Further investigation is being done to determine the exact mechanism by which exosomes influence telomere activity.

Beyond Telomeres: The Multifaceted Benefits of Exosomes in Aging

Exosomes hold immense promise for revolutionizing anti-aging medicine. Its potential benefits for aging extend beyond telomere protection. Here are some additional areas in which they can :

  • Enhanced mitochondrion function: Mitochondrion are known as the powerhouse of the cells, which produce the cellular energy currency ATP. Exosomes help to improve mitochondrial function, leading to increased cellular energy and improved tissue health. It provides the cell with sufficient energy to carry out the subsequent biological processes.
  • Anti-inflammatory & Anti-oxidative Effects: Chronic inflammation is a major contributor to an accelerated aging process. It is usually accompanied by oxidative stress molecules accumulating in the cells. Together, they both have a significant impact on the cells health. Exosomes isolated from the stem cell are loaded with anti-inflammatory molecules like interleukins, to reduce the inflammatory response and boost the overall health of the cell. The anti-oxidant molecules help reduce the oxidative stress on the cell and rejuvenate it.

Stem cell derived exosomes carry the same properties as stem cells all the while without any live cells. It places these exosomes in a unique position to counter various aging symptoms.

The Road Ahead

Exosomes are emerging as versatile tools in our fight against aging. In some cases, with exosomes, we are starting to gain an upper hand for the condition. When extracted from the stem cells, exosomes hold immense promise for promoting healthy aging and a youthful looking appearance. While the research is ongoing to understand the effectiveness of exosomes, they offer a glimpse into the future of personalized and targeted anti-aging tools. The future of aging is no longer shrouded in the shadows of inevitability. Exosome research offers a beacon of hope, illuminating a path towards a future.

FAQs

Exosomes are increadibly adaptable, and they can easily complement several aesthetic procedures, including laser therapy, chemical peels, and botox injections. Their secret lies in how they facilitate cellular communication and regeneration to significantly boost the healing process and improve efficacy.

Ideal candidates for exosome therapy are those who are struggling with early aging signs like fine lines, wrinkles, reduced skin elasticity, hair thinning, or baldness. As exosomes deliver a healthy dose of growth factors, they can stimulate skin and hair rejuvenation.

Scientists and dermatologists have put the Advancexo exosome through extensive testing to determine its safety and effectiveness. It has been deemed safe and effective for application on any skin type because it relies on the natural biological repair mechanism. In rare cases, you might see allergic reactions, but the risk can be minimized with a pre-treatment assessment